See Today's Synonym. The educator and psychologist John Dewey first used the phrase in its modern sense in his book How We Think , though there are instances of the words appearing together in texts before this time. Critical thinking is active, in contrast to passive acceptance of the ideas of others. Different criteria and tests used to determine whether or not critical thinking is taking place have been put forth by different educators. This, more than any other thing, transforms mere inference into tested inference, suggested conclusions into proof. Pedagogical and psychometric usefulness, not elegance or mutual exclusiveness, is the purpose of this outline.
The Death of Critical Thinking
When considering reflection we cannot escape the figure of Dewey. How We Think ; has made a unique impact on education. While there are a number of questions about the model he put forward, it does provide a good starting point for looking at some of the elements of the reflective process. He set out five phases or aspects. These states of thinking are as follows:. An intellectualization of the difficulty or perplexity that has been felt directly experienced into a problem to be solved. The use of one suggestion after another as a leading idea, or hypothesis, to initiate and guide observation and other operations in collection of factual material.
Critical and Reflective Thinking (3) - Dewey on These Terms
Praymont shares View profile View Blog. Culture Magazine Authors. Reed Geertsen attributes to John Dewey an interesting distinction between 'reflective' and 'critical' thinking.
But the most important factor is honesty. It starts as an honesty with yourself. I think of critical thinking as a religious-like adherence to facts — only to facts, and to all of the facts relevant in any situation. If you want to see what critical thinking is NOT, then listen to the meanderings of any politicians, and most others in public life today.